New Zealand, Volcano, Crater

The term volcano originated from the name Vulcan, the Roman god of fire. A volcano forms when there is a rupture or natural happening opening in the Earth’s crust which enables melted rock called magma, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from below the surface.

Many people think of conical mountains with lava flowing down its sides when the term volcano springs to mind. However, this is but one of various types of volcanoes that exist. Composite or strato volcanoes form between alternating layers of lava and rock fragments and they form into various types of shapes including big conical, concave, pyramidal, convex-concave, helmet-shaped, collapsed, nested, elongated, and even some with numerous summits.

Shield volcanoes consist almost entirely of lava flow. Broad flat layers of lava form sheets which cool down, with subsequent eruptions accumulating additional sheets over ones previously made. These types of volcanoes are large in area but have a low profile, which resembles a warrior’s shield.

A complex or compound volcano is a volcano with more than 1 feature. This type of volcano is the least predictive as it might change the way that it erupts or its consistency. It may have more than one vent with every vent erupting differently.

Some volcanoes form under glaciers while other volcanoes develop well under the surface of the ocean. A submarine volcano is one that begins beneath the surface of a body of water, typically in an ocean. When submarine volcano builds much such that it projects above the ocean’s surface, it forms an island or a small chain of islands, such as the Hawaiian Islands.

There’s a major series of active submarine volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean called the Ring of Fire. Its’ horseshoe-shaped ring extends to about 25,000 miles. It consists of over 450 active and dormant volcanoes, which represents over 75 percent of the world’s volcanoes.

While lots of people associate harm and destruction when they think of volcanoes, in addition, there are some benefits of volcanoes that people have learned to capitalize on. One of the chief advantages of a volcano is its rich volcanic soil. Rain naturally weathers and breaks down volcanic tephra, which contains powerful nutrients in the ash and is beneficial to plant growth.

Submarine volcanoes form habitable islands in a variety of places with unique characteristics.

There are certain gems and building materials that just come from the deposits left by volcanoes. Gemstones produced include opals and obsidian. Tuff is a hardened volcanic ash which is a lightweight durable material used in concrete.

Regions of volcanoes produce considerable quantities of geothermal energy, like areas such as Iceland and Costa Rica. The thermal energy is usable to make electricity and natural spas.

Located in the northern lowlands and is tall, loud, and flashy. It is one of the ten most active volcanoes on earth since it emits ash and lava on a regular basis. This large symmetrical volcano stands 5,437 feet that made from multiple layers of lava, rock, and ash. After 400 years of dormancy, the Arenal Volcano became active and regular beginning in 1968.

Volcano Facts

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